And darkness [was] upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

from Holy Bible (KJV) – Genesis 1 on Rap Genius


Notice the “face of the deep” / “face of the waters” parallelism, which is a literal translation of the Hebrew “pnei” (פני)

The “face” of the waters/the deep simply refers to the surface of the waters.

What’s translated as “Spirit of God” is literally “Divine Wind” (Ruach Elohim).

Historians who use the historical-critical method generally consider Genesis 1 to have been inspired by other Near Eastern myths. Genesis 1 appears to be a demythologized retelling of the Babylonian Enuma Elish, and was possibly written as a polemic against the Babylonian worldview. In the Enuma Elish, the storm god Marduk casts a gust of wind on the face of the dark, chaotic dragon goddess Tiamat, destroying her and creating the world from her carcass.

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